The East African Rift System defines the setting of most of Kenya's important internal (e.g., Lakes Nakuru, Naivasha, Baringo, Bogoria) and transboundary (e.g., Lakes Turkana, Victoria) lake basins. The lakes support ecosystems that are rich in birdlife, wildlife and aquatic macrophyte species, but the influent rivers have low species diversity. The lakes and rivers are valuable to the area inhabitants as they provide water and food for humans and livestock, food and nutrition from fisheries, materials for building and weaving, tourism and recreational services, and have aesthetic values. The lakes are, however, experiencing changing trophic status, and this is largely due to increased and in many cases unsustainable human activities within their catchments, including deforestation, large scale damming, excessive surface and ground water abstraction, pollution from agriculture and industries, siltation, livestock pressure and increased intensity of human exploitation of the resources. Some of the governance and management challenges that are recognised include: absence of institutional structures in some cases; differentiated capacities to manage the basins; inadequate or ineffective decision-support tools; inadequate levels of transboundary coordination; and_low and uncoordinated participation by stakeholders. This research explores these governance and management challenges using Kenya's internal and transboundary lakes as a case study, and examines how the Integrated Lake Basin Management (ILBM) conceptual framework, with its six fundamental pillars for governance improvement (institutions, policies, participation, technology, information, and finance) can be brought to bear to ensure sustainability of the lakes and their supporting natural and built infrastructure in the context of balancing conservation and development.
Ecological Risks of Net Pen Aquaculture in North American and African Great Lakes: Can BMPs Be Shared?
A recent expert review of the ecological risks of net pen aquaculture in the North American Great Lakes made a number of recommendations for Best Management Practices (BMPs) that should be applied to establishment of net pen farms. Based on that_study, researchers identified nine generic BMPs that could be applied to all Global Great Lakes.
Earth System Model Predictions of Climate and Environmental Changes in Great Lakes Watersheds to the Year 2100
Earth system models are the only scientific tools yet developed that are capable of integrating the multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes that determine past, present and future climate. Researchers here use the Community Earth System Model (CESM) to generate depictions of environmental futures under climate change specifically to serve stakeholder needs for each of the major Great Lake watersheds.
A Century of Rainfall Variability and Recent Change in the African Great Lakes Region
The Great Lakes of Africa help to sustain the economies of several East African nations. Changes in the condition of these lakes is of great concern. The objective of this research was to examine long-term variations of precipitation in the Great Lakes region. Rainfall over the catchment was assessed for Lakes Albert, Edward, Kivu, Malawi, Tanganyika, Turkana, and Victoria, using gauge data. In most cases over 100 years of record are available. Assessments were also made for the region as a whole. TRMM satellite estimates of precipitation were also used to examine the years since 1998.
From Fishing Rights to Human Rights in the Lives and Livelihoods of Women Fishers in the Great Lakes Region
This research project analyzes gender-based violence in cross-border fish trade in the GLR using a human rights perspective. A human rights perspective provides an understanding of the socio-economic conditions facing women fishers in the GLR. Expanding on established research on fishing rights of marginalized people, this analysis highlights human rights issues that have been less documented: gender-based cross-border violence and threats to personal security in the GLR.
Hydrological Impacts of Ethiopias Omo Basins Development on Kenyas Lake Turkana
Lake Turkana is Kenya's largest lake, renowned as the worlds largest desert lake, with 90% of the lakes inflow provided by Ethiopia's second largest river system, the Omo Basin. The natural hydrological cycle of the Omo / Turkana ecosystem is being dampened by a cascade of major hydropower developments, and in addition, large-scale irrigation plantations downstream will exploit the regulated river flow, and thereby deplete the natural river inflows to the lake. Local people utilize the lake resources, living in harsh conditions.
Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported Fishing on Africas Great Lakes
Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing has been reported in many publications;_this_research project_provides an overview of the extent of IUU fishing on the African Great Lakes. Stock has been taken of fisheries regulations and legislations in the riparian countries to understand the diversity of the interpretation of illegal fishing operations. A summary has been presented of the regulations governing the target species of the different fisheries.
Lake Level Fluctuations, Ecological Attributes and Fish Productivity in African Lakes and Reservoirs
Hydrological regimes, including inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations, are key drivers of productivity and structure in freshwater ecosystems in Africa, where inland fisheries are a vital source of income and protein. Using a synthesis of seventeen standardized food web models of thirteen African lakes and reservoirs, this study explored the relationship between inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations and sixteen ecological attributes associated with ecosystem configuration, productivity and maturity.
Prognosis for Long-term Sustainable Fisheries in the African Great Lakes
The three largest lakes of the African Great Lakes system, Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi, have distinctive fisheries and histories of fisheries management. All three provide essential and high quality food to their riparian populations and a range of other ecosystem services. Lakes Victoria and Tanganyika have highly commercialised and lake-wide, open-water fisheries. In Lake Malawi the commercial fishery is largely confined to the southern end of the lake, mainly exploiting demersal fish. Artisanal and low-level subsistence fisheries occur throughout all three lakes.
The Importance of Monitoring the Great Lakes to Assess any Change in the Extent of Water-Related Ecosystems Over Time (Sustainable Development Goal Indicator 6.6.1)
Indicator 6.6.1 tracks changes over time in the extent of water-related ecosystems. It uses the imminent date of 2020 in order to align with the Aichi Targets of the Convention of Biodiversity, but will continue beyond that date to align with the rest of the SDG Targets set at 2030. Whereas all ecosystems depend on water, some ecosystems play a more prominent role in the provision of water-related services to society. Consequently, one of the focuses for global monitoring of this indicator is lakes.