The Great Lakes of Africa help to sustain the economies of several East African nations. Changes in the condition of these lakes is of great concern. The objective of this research was to examine long-term variations of precipitation in the Great Lakes region. Rainfall over the catchment was assessed for Lakes Albert, Edward, Kivu, Malawi, Tanganyika, Turkana, and Victoria, using gauge data. In most cases over 100 years of record are available. Assessments were also made for the region as a whole. TRMM satellite estimates of precipitation were also used to examine the years since 1998. Recent variations of the lakes, as estimated via altimetry, are also shown and compared with precipitation. Overall the precipitation climate of the region has been fairly stable, but some change of seasonality is evident. For example, in much of the region October-to-December rainfall increased while March-to-May rainfall decreased. In recent decades there has been some decline in the rains over Lakes Albert, Turkana, and Victoria but some increase in rainfall over the remaining lakes. Notably, most of the lakes appear to enhance rainfall over the lake itself. This effect has long been known for Lake Victoria, but evidence suggests this is the case for several other lakes as well. A full understanding of the future of the lakes region requires better knowledge.
Lake Level Fluctuations, Ecological Attributes and Fish Productivity in African Lakes and Reservoirs
Hydrological regimes, including inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations, are key drivers of productivity and structure in freshwater ecosystems in Africa, where inland fisheries are a vital source of income and protein. Using a synthesis of seventeen standardized food web models of thirteen African lakes and reservoirs, this study explored the relationship between inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations and sixteen ecological attributes associated with ecosystem configuration, productivity and maturity.
Earth System Model Predictions of Climate and Environmental Changes in Great Lakes Watersheds to the Year 2100
Earth system models are the only scientific tools yet developed that are capable of integrating the multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes that determine past, present and future climate. Researchers here use the Community Earth System Model (CESM) to generate depictions of environmental futures under climate change specifically to serve stakeholder needs for each of the major Great Lake watersheds.
From Fishing Rights to Human Rights in the Lives and Livelihoods of Women Fishers in the Great Lakes Region
This research project analyzes gender-based violence in cross-border fish trade in the GLR using a human rights perspective. A human rights perspective provides an understanding of the socio-economic conditions facing women fishers in the GLR. Expanding on established research on fishing rights of marginalized people, this analysis highlights human rights issues that have been less documented: gender-based cross-border violence and threats to personal security in the GLR.
Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported Fishing on Africas Great Lakes
Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing has been reported in many publications;_this_research project_provides an overview of the extent of IUU fishing on the African Great Lakes. Stock has been taken of fisheries regulations and legislations in the riparian countries to understand the diversity of the interpretation of illegal fishing operations. A summary has been presented of the regulations governing the target species of the different fisheries.
The Importance of Monitoring the Great Lakes to Assess any Change in the Extent of Water-Related Ecosystems Over Time (Sustainable Development Goal Indicator 6.6.1)
Indicator 6.6.1 tracks changes over time in the extent of water-related ecosystems. It uses the imminent date of 2020 in order to align with the Aichi Targets of the Convention of Biodiversity, but will continue beyond that date to align with the rest of the SDG Targets set at 2030. Whereas all ecosystems depend on water, some ecosystems play a more prominent role in the provision of water-related services to society. Consequently, one of the focuses for global monitoring of this indicator is lakes.
What Is Population, Health, and the Environment and Why Is It Relevant for the Africa Great Lakes Region?
Population, Health, and the Environment (PHE) is a community-based development model that uses integrated approaches to improve access to health services, especially family planning and reproductive health, while helping communities manage natural resources and conserve the critical ecosystems on which they depend. PHE is a last mile approach that reaches vulnerable populations in rural areas that are typically beyond the reach of government services and large-scale development projects. For over two decades, diverse organizations around the world have carried out PHE projects.
Development of Best Practices for Cage Fish Farming to Increase Fish Production
Cage fish farming is growing fish in net enclosures suspended in water at high density in low volume (LVHD) or low density in high volume (HVLD) cages while maintaining free water exchange between the enclosure and the water body. Cage fish farming has increased in the African Great Lakes (AGL) region, since the beginning of the 21st century and has in less than 20 years, demonstrated capacity to increase fish production to more than 40 kg m-3 compared to ~5 kg m-3 from ponds which started more than 60 years ago.
Climate Finance in the African Great Lakes: A Review of the Multilateral Climate Funds
Commitments to deliver climate finance to developing countries are longstanding. Developed countries pledged to deliver finance approaching $30 billion between 2010 and 2012, in the context of a commitment to mobilise $100 billion per year from public and private sources by 2020 in the Copenhagen Accord of 2009. These commitments were affirmed in the Cancun Agreements of 2010.
Building a Resilient Future Through Water-Connecting the 2030 Agenda and Paris Agreement
The African Great Lakes region has been experiencing extreme rainfall. Sometimes, it might result in floods or it might be very dry weather. But by 2050 the whole region will be experiencing significant changes in the water cycle. Water is the lifeblood of this region with large lakes and rivers. The state of water resources affects all natural, social and economic systems. Water serves as the fundamental link between the climate system, human society and the environment. Climate change is severely impacting the hydrological cycle and consequently, water management in the region.