The East African Rift System defines the setting of most of Kenya's important internal (e.g., Lakes Nakuru, Naivasha, Baringo, Bogoria) and transboundary (e.g., Lakes Turkana, Victoria) lake basins. The lakes support ecosystems that are rich in birdlife, wildlife and aquatic macrophyte species, but the influent rivers have low species diversity. The lakes and rivers are valuable to the area inhabitants as they provide water and food for humans and livestock, food and nutrition from fisheries, materials for building and weaving, tourism and recreational services, and have aesthetic values.
The researchers studied the spatial distribution of large mammals in Murchison Falls National Park in north-western Uganda as oil exploration was on, and found that most large mammals avoided disturbed habitats. Species with a large home range such as elephants, giraffes, buffalos and hartebeests were more negatively affected by oil and gas mining and avoided areas close to the disturbance. Small home range species such as warthogs and oribis were tolerant. Species response varied with disturbance level. High disturbance led to high avoidance behaviour.
Population, Health, and the Environment (PHE) is a community-based development model that uses integrated approaches to improve access to health services, especially family planning and reproductive health, while helping communities manage natural resources and conserve the critical ecosystems on which they depend. PHE is a last mile approach that reaches vulnerable populations in rural areas that are typically beyond the reach of government services and large-scale development projects. For over two decades, diverse organizations around the world have carried out PHE projects.
Lake Victoria supports the worlds largest freshwater fishery which employs over 1 million people, and provides the regions most inexpensive source of dietary protein. Unfortunately, eutrophication and climate change are threatening critical ecosystem services, though the precise impact of these stressors is not clear. Remotely-sensed satellite data is well suited to fill large knowledge gaps and help stakeholders monitor and track ecosystem changes in this and other African Great Lakes.
Tourism in Uganda has over the years witnessed steady growth and is increasingly supporting economic growth and contributing to natural resource conservation. Although studies have been carried out to assess the impact of tourism on natural resources in Uganda, limited attention has been given to examining how tourism developments influence ecologically sensitive shore environments.
Well-dated sediment cores from Lake Tanganyika provide records of environmental change over timescales of centuries to millennia, giving us insights about how this complex ecosystem has responded to processes such as climate change (both before and after the onset of the industrial revolution) and watershed deforestation. They extend our knowledge of changes into the pre-observational era and the period prior to intensive land use, large-scale fishing and anthropogenic warming.
Lake Turkana is a transboundary resource, spanning the borders of Kenya and Ethiopia. The lakes importance to the well-being of local communities and national governments is not well documented compared to other Great Lakes of Africa. The lake basin is experiencing accelerated anthropogenic activities including construction of cascading dams and large scale irrigation projects along River Omo; oil discovery and ongoing exploration; associated resource use conflicts and construction of Africas largest wind power plant and episodic climatic changes.
Indicator 6.6.1 tracks changes over time in the extent of water-related ecosystems. It uses the imminent date of 2020 in order to align with the Aichi Targets of the Convention of Biodiversity, but will continue beyond that date to align with the rest of the SDG Targets set at 2030. Whereas all ecosystems depend on water, some ecosystems play a more prominent role in the provision of water-related services to society. Consequently, one of the focuses for global monitoring of this indicator is lakes.
Lake Victoria has one of the highest endemic fish species-area-relationships of any freshwater bodies in the world. More than 90% of this diversity is composed of haplochromine cichlids that have undergone an evolutionary radiation in the region into more than 700 endemic species in the past 100,000 years. These species belong to more than 20 different major ecological guilds from large benthic and small pelagic herbivores at one end of the consumer food web to inshore and pelagic fish predators at the other end.
There has been a considerable increase in the pace at which hydrocarbon reserves are being targeted in some of the most remote and pristine areas on our planet, often involving the use of controversial technologies such as hydraulic fracturing or deepwater drilling. Unnoticed by the public, initiatives for oil exploration are advanced in Africas largest freshwater reservoirs, including Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and lately Albert, threatening their ecosystems and biota.
This project aims to improve understanding of the importance of wetlands, highlighting the ecological and economic value of Ruvubu National Park through trainings on ecosystem services assessments and identification of biodiversity and ecosystem services characteristics and spatial trends.
Lake Victoria and its basin are comprised of enormous areas of permanent and seasonal small water bodies that have been singled out as important faunal reservoirs for the endangered and threatened native species of Lake Victoria. Two tilapiine fish Oreochromis esculentus and O. variabilis are endemic and were the most commercial species in the lake fishery in early 1900s. Pressure on the fisheries and introduction of new fish species caused a severe decline of these species from the lake.
The three largest lakes of the African Great Lakes system, Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi, have distinctive fisheries and histories of fisheries management. All three provide essential and high quality food to their riparian populations and a range of other ecosystem services. Lakes Victoria and Tanganyika have highly commercialised and lake-wide, open-water fisheries. In Lake Malawi the commercial fishery is largely confined to the southern end of the lake, mainly exploiting demersal fish. Artisanal and low-level subsistence fisheries occur throughout all three lakes.
African Great Lakes and particularly Lake Tanganyika are under pressure of global and local environmental challenges including climatic change and anthropogenic pressures. Important past and present ecological changes were investigated. Possible ways to improve our knowledge of ecological changes are deduced which can be useful to set up a needed long term integrated monitoring. Environmental monitoring has been implemented during various periods in the last decades at Lake Tanganyika.
Hydrological regimes, including inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations, are key drivers of productivity and structure in freshwater ecosystems in Africa, where inland fisheries are a vital source of income and protein. Using a synthesis of seventeen standardized food web models of thirteen African lakes and reservoirs, this study explored the relationship between inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations and sixteen ecological attributes associated with ecosystem configuration, productivity and maturity.
The hydrology of Lake Victoria is, to a large extent, a function of the balance between rainfall on and evaporation from the lake surface. Historical climate variability has resulted in significant fluctuations in the water level in the lake. Climate models predict changes to the balance between precipitation and evaporation over the coming decades, with potentially serious impacts on the lakes water balance. These impacts have implications for the approximately 30 million people living around the lake, as well as further downstream in the Nile River basin.
Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing has been reported in many publications;_this_research project_provides an overview of the extent of IUU fishing on the African Great Lakes. Stock has been taken of fisheries regulations and legislations in the riparian countries to understand the diversity of the interpretation of illegal fishing operations. A summary has been presented of the regulations governing the target species of the different fisheries.
Lake Turkana is Kenya's largest lake, renowned as the worlds largest desert lake, with 90% of the lakes inflow provided by Ethiopia's second largest river system, the Omo Basin. The natural hydrological cycle of the Omo / Turkana ecosystem is being dampened by a cascade of major hydropower developments, and in addition, large-scale irrigation plantations downstream will exploit the regulated river flow, and thereby deplete the natural river inflows to the lake. Local people utilize the lake resources, living in harsh conditions.
This research project analyzes gender-based violence in cross-border fish trade in the GLR using a human rights perspective. A human rights perspective provides an understanding of the socio-economic conditions facing women fishers in the GLR. Expanding on established research on fishing rights of marginalized people, this analysis highlights human rights issues that have been less documented: gender-based cross-border violence and threats to personal security in the GLR.
Lake Malawi is a global biodiversity hotspot with exceptional fish diversity. While fisheries and their associated value chains are a source of food security and livelihoods for the lakeshore community, population growth and increased commercialization of the fisheries have resulted in the depletion of high value target species such as Chambo (Oreochromis Nyasalapia spp.).