Cage fish farming is growing fish in net enclosures suspended in water at high density in low volume (LVHD) or low density in high volume (HVLD) cages while maintaining free water exchange between the enclosure and the water body. Cage fish farming has increased in the African Great Lakes (AGL) region, since the beginning of the 21st century and has in less than 20 years, demonstrated capacity to increase fish production to more than 40 kg m-3 compared to ~5 kg m-3 from ponds which started more than 60 years ago. It therefore offers great potential to meet the deficit in fish production due to the decline in capture fisheries amidst increasing demand for fish by the rapidly increasing human population. High stocking densities require good water quality and optimum management. Cages can interfere with other uses of water bodies. Inputs and wastes can degrade the environment of the host water body and there can be disease outbreak. This research project proposes best practices for cage fish farming. Best practices require: proper site selection; securing the environment; a proper site plan; optimal production practices; comprehensive waste management; environmental remediation; effective policies and institutions, and compliance. Proper site selection involves: selection of a potential site and the culture system (LVHD or HVLD); assessing suitability and capability of the site; zoning it and estimating its carrying capacity. Securing the environment requires: an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA); and an environmental monitoring plan. A proper plan of the farm requires having: the layout of the farm; an enterprise budget; cage structure and design, fabrication materials, layout and placement of cages; a site security plan; and a decommissioning plan. Best production practices include: selecting suitable culture fish species and high quality seed; selecting appropriate stocking densities; employing skilled manpower; using high quality and cost effective feed which causes minimal environmental degradation; applying an appropriate feed management plan; evaluation of survival and growth performance; monitoring fish health and water quality; recording production statistics; developing a harvesting and marketing strategy; and analysis of production economics and profitability. A waste management plan included management of wastes generated on-farm and from non-point sources. Effective cage fish farming also requires appropriate policies and ensuring compliance to best practices. The above processes will require adaptive research in: genetic improvement of cultured species and seed management; stocking densities; carrying and assimilative capacities; raw material for feed production; feed and feed management; assessment of growth performance; disease prevention and monitoring; assessment of the market and development of a business model; rigorous environmental monitoring and compliance; and provision of supportive policies and skilled manpower.